Music Education Scene in Indonesia
The presence of Western Music in Indonesia can’t be separated from the colonialism narrative which is embodied in the appearance of this nation. Recorded about 3 centuries coexisted with colonial becoming determinant in the form of music, which emerged in Indonesia. Western Music was introduced by the Europeans, such as instrument, piano, cello, flute, violin, etc on its play and currently becoming a part of life which no longer need to ask its history in Indonesia and the world.
The following question then is how Indonesian music is?, it is kind of hard to describe about its music that Indonesian music contains many narrative texts associated with the presence of other nations who come to enliven the formation of this country. As Keroncong and Dangdut, which are recognized as an original Indonesian Music, is a slick blend of cultural presents.
In the days of Dutch colonization, indigenous people often came as musician. WR Supratman, one of them, created the anthem of ‘Indonesia Raya’ with the colonial atmosphere. And currently is annualy played magnificently with full orchestra formation. Not only that, the Indonesian national songs were then emanating with westernized orientation. The music requisite in the state context is a milestone point of formal music education in Indonesia.
In 1952, seven years after Indonesian independence, Presiden Soekarno built Sekolah Musik Indonesia in Yogyakarta, subsequently changed its name to AMI (Academy Music Indonesia) in 1961, and in 1984 became ISI (Institut Seni Indonesia). Formal music education in Indonesia adapts classical music learning from Europe. This school teaches seriously piano, vocal, string, brass and percussion. Western Classical Music as classiy music legitimate is presented as the ideal and legal music selection of the state.
Does Indonesia have own music besides western music? How is fate? And what is the state’s role on that?
In post-independence, Soekarno as Indonesia’s first president was feeling anxious with the music tastes of Indonesian people. The appearance of The Beatles and Elvis Presley in the popular universe provides a tremendous influence in the history of music scene in Indonesia. Rock n roll era is considered to bring negative influence. The music on that era was seen as cheap and did not reflect the culture of Indonesia, so that Bung Karno prohibitted the development of music in that genre. Even that music genre called ‘Ngak-Ngik-Ngok’ and the terms can be interpreted as less value and less aesthetics. The ban made Koes Plus, one of popular band group imprisoned (1965).
Not only prohibition, Soekarno offered some local figures who are considered popular representation from several regions in Indonesia. Waljinah, Benyamin Sueb, Sam Saimun and many other personalities present as the representation of the nation’s identity as a multiethnic. Through the Bintang Radio festival held by Radio Republik Indonesia in 1951 some singers appear to be a musician and legitimate representation of Indonesia. Government became Maecenas that protect, preserve and bring direction to the music that developed later. In Bintang Radio festival, there are three music genres in the competition, named kroncong, seriosa and entertainment.
In 1970, during the New Order government, the conditions are slightly different. The presence of the television industry of which music appearance as one of the entertainment, shows implicated in the emergence of several popular music star of the capital and was slowly but surely making local musicians displaced. Music is no longer presented to the state rites but it began to attend to the entertainment industry. Answering the needs of the time, music education is growing and no longer offers classical music but also popular music. Yamaha, Japanese international corporation that was beginning engaged in the production of music instruments such as piano, guitar, etc., started offering non-formal music education as an industry to be reckoned with. Some branches began attending in big cities by selling instruments bussiness and offers Western Classical Music courses, including the system.
The sparkling of television that visually presents musicians as an idol in the capital world becomes a nice hope for the Indonesian people. Expectations for glory and fame make music fours and switching functions. Not only Yamaha saw this market opportunities, International corporation others like ABRSM, Trinity also come up offers so enticing program with a curriculum that legitimized by the world. By cooperating with popular musician idol as a dream figure, ABRSM, Trinity became a reference non-formal music education in the capitalization educational music arena.
This paper wants to discuss the dispute which formed in the music education scene in Indonesia which can’t be separated from narrative history, politics, and industry. Industries with the ideology of capitalism offer new myths which are consumed by the people of Indonesia, who unconsciously influence the behavior in music. The history of music that has been rolled and politics have influenced the shape and tastes of society. But now, the state and the tastes of the people are still related? Or the market has been so freely into the area of music education in Indonesia?
Mozart Myth in Music Education Industry
The Mozart effect is a phenomenon which began appearing in the US in 1993 and continued to expand to the whole world, including Indonesia today. In the United States, Mozart CDs and cassettes are in demand since the news about this effect, even there is no government regulation in a particular state, that specifically encourage its citizens to listen to Mozart and insert it into the curriculum of music education. The Mozart effect can generally be described as the condition or effects as a result of exposure to certain music (especially Mozart) in a short time and have a positive effect on cognition and behavior.
Research on the Mozart Effect performed by Frances Rauscher et al from the University of California is an action research experiments with 36 college students were divided into 3 groups, each group received three treatments in 10 minutes as listening: (1) Sonata for two pianos in D, k.448 by Mozart; (2) tapes relaxation instructions; (3) silence. Immediately after receiving treatment, 36 students take a test of spatial or temporal using the Stanford-Binet test, a test in the form of folded paper that is then cut up and the students were asked to imagine the pattern shape to cutout when the paper was opened. The result was a group that listened to Mozart Sonata obtain higher values differ significantly, ie by 8-9 points.
However, this effect is very short, lasting only 10-15 minutes. The researchers concluded that music can cause the brain to function better in spatial ability, at least in a few minutes. The findings are then exaggerated to say that the music of Mozart can enhance 8-9 IQ points, when it is clear that the effect only lasts a few minutes and covers only the temporal-spatial ability that can not be claimed to increase the IQ in general.
Mozart Effect was officially discovered and published by Rauscher et al, but the copyright for it is taken up by a music expert named Don Campbell Mozart Effect makes its official website and sell a lot of CDs Mozart effect. Rauscher had not claimed that Mozart can increase intelligence, he said that it is too soon to conclude that Mozart makes you smarter for a while.
Since the first news about Mozart Effect finding in Nature magazine, music research so advanced development and has been widely stimulated the experts interest to begin researching the music and its impact on human life. Not only the experts, the general public began to be interested, but unfortunately a lot of information that reaches the public has been too distorted and added spices fictitious. Evidence that Mozart can increase IQ does not exist, but the impact of music for temporal-spatial ability is strong enough.
The Mozart Effect with all its news in the media produces myths in music education is interesting to pursue. Imagination of improving the intelligence suggest people’s behavior toward music. In the popular world, the word ‘myth’ is often used to refer to various beliefs and opinions, which can be proved as falsehood. From the presentation of the Mozart Effect above is actually no logic relationship between the songs of Mozart with the increase of IQ, yet memorable myths that developed precisely the opposite.
As described in the previous chapter, music education in Indonesia was initially present in the context of the state, and with the rise of the entertainment and television industry, non-formal music education began to emerge and responded well by the market. The presence of the myth of the Mozart effect in the industrialization of music education arena in Indonesia and the world, brought significant changes that the introduction of music from an early age. The myth that learning music early as possible to increase the intelligence became allure and genial in music education industry. The entire program for early childhood music education is offered to increase the intelligence of children.
For example Yamaha Music School, music fantasy program is offered for children aged 1-2 years, in some of their advertisement, music fantasy program invites parents to provide music education from an early age as poorer learning music increases children’s intelligence!, the influence of music on children’s intelligence, not only intelligence in thinking, but also emotional intelligence. And parents need to carefully select the type of music on how positive impact in stimulating a child’s brain.
Purwacaraka Music Studio is a company dedicated to music education. Purwacaraka is a famous musician in Indonesian music entertainment. His appearance as a music director in many TV programs on making his name is believed to be a music educator, although his basic education is a scholar of engineering. By adapting the ABRSM learning system tailored to the desires of the market, Purwacaraka Music Studio offers a variety of courses that are suitable for a wide range of ages, starting from the age of 5 years. With the brand “Cerdas Bersama Music” offers music education program that aims to create a complete musician, musicians who can express themselves in skilled, creative and artistic. With nearly 20 years of experience, Purwa Caraka Music Studio has 76 branches across Indonesia with 22,000 students enrolled annually.
Mozart Effect has evolved from a scientific publication, dissemination, and promotion of the massive myth becoming important material in the advertising business of music education. Advertisement likened to a sorceress who had spells to influence consumers. Advertisement of the Mozart effect provides an opportunity for capitalists to introduce the product in this case the music education program early to market, indulgence in various kinds of promises are not often relevant to the actual benefits. But that is where the real power gets more advertising. Because of the advertisement, not uncommon believed the benefits and efficacy of a product, and then buy just as they chew raw promises and dreams ads offer without once trying criticized.
Music Education and Urban Growth
The Mozart effect allure has influenced music education system in the world. The introduction of music to an early age seems to be a necessity inevitable worldwide. As well as Indonesia, the Ministry of Education and Culture eventually put music education in the national curriculum, although only in a small percentage if it is compared to other fields of science.
When compared with other disciplines, music education in Indonesia is not projected to be important, so often forgotten. Therefore, its influence on students and also the outcome was not as big as other subjects. Students dream to become a musician rarely present through the eyes of music lessons in school, but more inspired by bands that are famous or figure in the entertainment industry.
The music industry also turned out to bring sustenance for owners of non-formal music schools, as more people want to adept at playing music. Music education outside of school becomes an option to hone talent playing music. Students come from children, adolescents, and adults. As a result, the business of music education is also increasing. The frenetic music industry has contributed to the high public interest towards music.
In order to make music schools fully developed, marketing methods should also be considered. During this time, some entrepreneurs in the field of music education have its own tips in marketing of their music school. One of them is cooperating with well-known musicians in developing their business. A famous Indonesian drummer Gilang Ramadhan reported that efforts GRSD (Gilang Ramadhan School of Drums) he started in three years to breed 14 branches in many big cities. All promotional efforts are directly performed as advertising in the media, spreading leaflets or banners. Promotions can also be done indirectly by involving students in music events are usually held in a shopping center or other venues. Students are also invited to play with the famous musicians. By appearing in the arena of music event, student mentality to perform in front of the public will be trained. If you look at a good student, it has indirectly promoted the name of the music school.
In the meantime, it should be realized in full by education actors, especially music education institutions that they hold the quality of music education in Indonesia. Courses are what continue to be a barometer of the quality of music education in Indonesia until some time into the future, until the public school curriculum can offer more satisfied service in music education.
This responsibility is not a mere toy, especially because until now music education is still very limited to reach. Confined to major cities only, it is common to refer to the historical presence of music education in Indonesia. The entertainment industry is concentrated in the city limited the scope for distributing music education in Indonesia. Besides the issue of territory, the capitalization of music education also creates social classes where music education for children is preferred by parents with middle up economic conditions. Trend and prestige often helped decorating the main purpose of the parents to provide music education to their children. Studied music in Indonesia mostly just follow the wave era or hobby, rarely choose to become a life choice
A life choice to be a musician is still considered not the ideals favorite on Indonesian kids’. Doctors and engineers remains the top choice. If we look at the vocational school of music and music higher education in Indonesia, most of their student backgrounds are musician families or who are not accepted in public schools or colleges in other fields of science.
It is particularly ironic, considering that music education was initially believed to improve intelligence in the end only a runaway choice. Especially considering the cost is quite expensive spending much of the parent’s pocket. Already pay for expensive dragged down to momentary trend.
Different from the music education in Taiwan. Research entitled West Meets East: The Meaning and Study of Western Classical Music in Taiwan, (Dr Pan Li-ming) is delivered at the symposium Royal Music Asociation titled Intercultural Transfer in Music in Singapore some time ago stated that the people of Taiwan considers girls capable of playing classical music is a valuable asset.
It becomes an obligation and a requirement to provide the best classical music education despite having borrowings. It is said to be an asset for girls with a good skill of classical music that will groom by male profession like doctors or lawyers. This means that it will be able to raise the degree or economic status of their family life.
In the historical drama film by Zhang Yimou, named The Flowers of War told about a group of female students and prostitutes runaway hiding in a church to save themselves from persecution by the Japanese army. The film is adapted from historical novel, entitled Flowers of Nanjing, a historical record of the massacre in Nanking 1937. It Illustrated that Japanese soldiers kill and rape indiscriminately at that time, but when they know that students who were hiding in the church can sing beautifully in the western manners (the church), then they revert intention and choose to keep the women to be presented to their superiors. The Church as a symbol of colonial presence (West) brought culture in this regard western music education in the eastern region. Distribution of classical music in China came through the church and European Imperialism. At the time of the Japanese population in Nanjing in 1937, classical music was considered more valuable by the east leading to students who are capable of playing music more valuable that it deserves to be given to the leadership of the Japanese army. From some of the stories, there seemed links between history, politics, economics in their influence on the position of music in a space and how education is then constructed the accompanying music.
Music education in Indonesia who comes and grows can’t be separated from the colonial narrative embodied. The entertainment industry which has come in the final decades significantly affects the development of music education in Indonesia. At first the government constructed music education to the needs of the state, but the presence when the Mozart Effect rose, music education was introduced early on, not least in schools even though the percentage was very low. Music education industry who took over the role of music education in Indonesia, the Mozart myth has embodied and become archetype and consumption affect patterns of the music. The Brand that music can improve children’s intelligence become big dream image of the parents.
Mozart as an establish symbol of classical music, convince Indonesian people, especially the middle up economic ability to show self-image in public space. Music Education costs are quite expensive to trap people in the capital lucrative deals. Trend and prestige still become a terror in selecting the best for the child, without trying to weigh and scrutinize.