Mozzart Effect Allure, Industrial Promotion, and Lifestyle

Music Education Scene in Indonesia

The presence of Western Music in Indonesia can’t be separated from the colonialism narrative which is embodied in the appearance of this nation. Recorded about 3 centuries coexisted with colonial becoming determinant in the form of music, which emerged in Indonesia. Western Music was introduced by the Europeans, such as instrument, piano, cello, flute, violin, etc on its play and currently becoming a part of life which no longer need to ask its history in Indonesia and the world.

The following question then is how Indonesian music is?, it is kind of hard to describe about its music that Indonesian music contains many narrative texts associated with the presence of other nations who come to enliven the formation of this country. As Keroncong and Dangdut, which are recognized as an original Indonesian Music, is a slick blend of cultural presents.

In the days of Dutch colonization, indigenous people often came as musician. WR Supratman, one of them, created the anthem of ‘Indonesia Raya’ with the colonial atmosphere. And currently is annualy played magnificently with full orchestra formation. Not only that, the Indonesian national songs were then emanating with westernized orientation. The music requisite in the state context is a milestone point of formal music education in Indonesia.

In 1952, seven years after Indonesian independence, Presiden Soekarno built Sekolah Musik Indonesia in Yogyakarta, subsequently changed its name to AMI (Academy Music Indonesia) in 1961, and in 1984 became ISI (Institut Seni Indonesia). Formal music education in Indonesia adapts classical music learning from Europe. This school teaches seriously piano, vocal, string, brass and percussion. Western Classical Music as classiy music legitimate is presented as the ideal and legal music selection of the state.

Does Indonesia have own music besides western music? How is fate? And what is the state’s role on that?

In post-independence, Soekarno as Indonesia’s first president was feeling anxious with the music tastes of Indonesian people. The appearance of The Beatles and Elvis Presley in the popular universe provides a tremendous influence in the history of music scene in Indonesia. Rock n roll era is considered to bring negative influence. The music on that era was seen as cheap and did not reflect the culture of Indonesia, so that Bung Karno prohibitted the development of music in that genre. Even that music genre called ‘Ngak-Ngik-Ngok’ and the terms can be interpreted as less value and less aesthetics. The ban made Koes Plus, one of popular band group imprisoned (1965).

Not only prohibition, Soekarno offered some local figures who are considered popular representation from several regions in Indonesia. Waljinah, Benyamin Sueb, Sam Saimun and many other personalities present as the representation of the nation’s identity as a multiethnic. Through the Bintang Radio festival held by Radio Republik Indonesia in 1951 some singers appear to be a musician and legitimate representation of Indonesia. Government became Maecenas that protect, preserve and bring direction to the music that developed later. In Bintang Radio festival, there are three music genres in the competition, named kroncong, seriosa and entertainment.

In 1970, during the New Order government, the conditions are slightly different. The presence of the television industry of which music appearance as one of the entertainment, shows implicated in the emergence of several popular music star of the capital and was slowly but surely making local musicians displaced. Music is no longer presented to the state rites but it began to attend to the entertainment industry. Answering the needs of the time, music education is growing and no longer offers classical music but also popular music. Yamaha, Japanese international corporation that was beginning engaged in the production of music instruments such as piano, guitar, etc., started offering non-formal music education as an industry to be reckoned with. Some branches began attending in big cities by selling instruments bussiness and offers Western Classical Music courses, including the system.

The sparkling of television that visually presents musicians as an idol in the capital world becomes a nice hope for the Indonesian people. Expectations for glory and fame make music fours and switching functions. Not only Yamaha saw this market opportunities, International corporation others like ABRSM, Trinity also come up offers so enticing program with a curriculum that legitimized by the world. By cooperating with popular musician idol as a dream figure, ABRSM, Trinity became a reference non-formal music education in the capitalization educational music arena.

This paper wants to discuss the dispute which formed in the music education scene in Indonesia which can’t be separated from narrative history, politics, and industry. Industries with the ideology of capitalism offer new myths which are consumed by the people of Indonesia, who unconsciously influence the behavior in music. The history of music that has been rolled and politics have influenced the shape and tastes of society. But now, the state and the tastes of the people are still related? Or the market has been so freely into the area of music education in Indonesia?

 

Mozart Myth in Music Education Industry

The Mozart effect is a phenomenon which began appearing in the US in 1993 and continued to expand to the whole world, including Indonesia today. In the United States, Mozart CDs and cassettes are in demand since the news about this effect, even there is no government regulation in a particular state, that specifically encourage its citizens to listen to Mozart and insert it into the curriculum of music education. The Mozart effect can generally be described as the condition or effects as a result of exposure to certain music (especially Mozart) in a short time and have a positive effect on cognition and behavior.

Research on the Mozart Effect performed by Frances Rauscher et al from the University of California is an action research experiments with 36 college students were divided into 3 groups, each group received three treatments in 10 minutes as listening: (1) Sonata for two pianos in D, k.448 by Mozart; (2) tapes relaxation instructions; (3) silence. Immediately after receiving treatment, 36 students take a test of spatial or temporal using the Stanford-Binet test, a test in the form of folded paper that is then cut up and the students were asked to imagine the pattern shape to cutout when the paper was opened. The result was a group that listened to Mozart Sonata obtain higher values differ significantly, ie by 8-9 points.

However, this effect is very short, lasting only 10-15 minutes. The researchers concluded that music can cause the brain to function better in spatial ability, at least in a few minutes. The findings are then exaggerated to say that the music of Mozart can enhance 8-9 IQ points, when it is clear that the effect only lasts a few minutes and covers only the temporal-spatial ability that can not be claimed to increase the IQ in general.

Mozart Effect was officially discovered and published by Rauscher et al, but the copyright for it is taken up by a music expert named Don Campbell Mozart Effect makes its official website and sell a lot of CDs Mozart effect. Rauscher had not claimed that Mozart can increase intelligence, he said that it is too soon to conclude that Mozart makes you smarter for a while.

Since the first news about Mozart Effect finding in Nature magazine, music research so advanced development and has been widely stimulated the experts interest to begin researching the music and its impact on human life. Not only the experts, the general public began to be interested, but unfortunately a lot of information that reaches the public has been too distorted and added spices fictitious. Evidence that Mozart can increase IQ does not exist, but the impact of music for temporal-spatial ability is strong enough.

The Mozart Effect with all its news in the media produces myths in music education is interesting to pursue. Imagination of improving the intelligence suggest people’s behavior toward music. In the popular world, the word ‘myth’ is often used to refer to various beliefs and opinions, which can be proved as falsehood. From the presentation of the Mozart Effect above is actually no logic relationship between the songs of Mozart with the increase of IQ, yet memorable myths that developed precisely the opposite.

As described in the previous chapter, music education in Indonesia was initially present in the context of the state, and with the rise of the entertainment and television industry, non-formal music education began to emerge and responded well by the market. The presence of the myth of the Mozart effect in the industrialization of music education arena in Indonesia and the world, brought significant changes that the introduction of music from an early age. The myth that learning music early as possible to increase the intelligence became allure and genial in music education industry. The entire program for early childhood music education is offered to increase the intelligence of children.

For example Yamaha Music School, music fantasy program is offered for children aged 1-2 years, in some of their advertisement, music fantasy program invites parents to provide music education from an early age as poorer learning music increases children’s intelligence!, the influence of music on children’s intelligence, not only intelligence in thinking, but also emotional intelligence. And parents need to carefully select the type of music on how positive impact in stimulating a child’s brain.

Purwacaraka Music Studio is a company dedicated to music education. Purwacaraka is a famous musician in Indonesian music entertainment. His appearance as a music director in many TV programs on making his name is believed to be a music educator, although his basic education is a scholar of engineering. By adapting the ABRSM learning system tailored to the desires of the market, Purwacaraka Music Studio offers a variety of courses that are suitable for a wide range of ages, starting from the age of 5 years. With the brand “Cerdas Bersama Music” offers music education program that aims to create a complete musician, musicians who can express themselves in skilled, creative and artistic. With nearly 20 years of experience, Purwa Caraka Music Studio has 76 branches across Indonesia with 22,000 students enrolled annually.

Mozart Effect has evolved from a scientific publication, dissemination, and promotion of the massive myth becoming important material in the advertising business of music education. Advertisement likened to a sorceress who had spells to influence consumers. Advertisement of the Mozart effect provides an opportunity for capitalists to introduce the product in this case the music education program early to market, indulgence in various kinds of promises are not often relevant to the actual benefits. But that is where the real power gets more advertising. Because of the advertisement, not uncommon believed the benefits and efficacy of a product, and then buy just as they chew raw promises and dreams ads offer without once trying criticized.

 

Music Education and Urban Growth

The Mozart effect allure has influenced music education system in the world. The introduction of music to an early age seems to be a necessity inevitable worldwide. As well as Indonesia, the Ministry of Education and Culture eventually put music education in the national curriculum, although only in a small percentage if it is compared to other fields of science.

When compared with other disciplines, music education in Indonesia is not projected to be important, so often forgotten. Therefore, its influence on students and also the outcome was not as big as other subjects. Students dream to become a musician rarely present through the eyes of music lessons in school, but more inspired by bands that are famous or figure in the entertainment industry.

The music industry also turned out to bring sustenance for owners of non-formal music schools, as more people want to adept at playing music. Music education outside of school becomes an option to hone talent playing music. Students come from children, adolescents, and adults. As a result, the business of music education is also increasing. The frenetic music industry has contributed to the high public interest towards music.

In order to make music schools fully developed, marketing methods should also be considered. During this time, some entrepreneurs in the field of music education have its own tips in marketing of their music school. One of them is cooperating with well-known musicians in developing their business. A famous Indonesian drummer Gilang Ramadhan reported that efforts GRSD (Gilang Ramadhan School of Drums) he started in three years to breed 14 branches in many big cities. All promotional efforts are directly performed as advertising in the media, spreading leaflets or banners. Promotions can also be done indirectly by involving students in music events are usually held in a shopping center or other venues. Students are also invited to play with the famous musicians. By appearing in the arena of music event, student mentality to perform in front of the public will be trained. If you look at a good student, it has indirectly promoted the name of the music school.

In the meantime, it should be realized in full by education actors, especially music education institutions that they hold the quality of music education in Indonesia. Courses are what continue to be a barometer of the quality of music education in Indonesia until some time into the future, until the public school curriculum can offer more satisfied service in music education.

This responsibility is not a mere toy, especially because until now music education is still very limited to reach. Confined to major cities only, it is common to refer to the historical presence of music education in Indonesia. The entertainment industry is concentrated in the city limited the scope for distributing music education in Indonesia. Besides the issue of territory, the capitalization of music education also creates social classes where music education for children is preferred by parents with middle up economic conditions. Trend and prestige often helped decorating the main purpose of the parents to provide music education to their children. Studied music in Indonesia mostly just follow the wave era or hobby, rarely choose to become a life choice

A life choice to be a musician is still considered not the ideals favorite on Indonesian kids’. Doctors and engineers remains the top choice. If we look at the vocational school of music and music higher education in Indonesia, most of their student backgrounds are musician families or who are not accepted in public schools or colleges in other fields of science.

It is particularly ironic, considering that music education was initially believed to improve intelligence in the end only a runaway choice. Especially considering the cost is quite expensive spending much of the parent’s pocket. Already pay for expensive dragged down to momentary trend.

Different from the music education in Taiwan. Research entitled West Meets East: The Meaning and Study of Western Classical Music in Taiwan, (Dr Pan Li-ming) is delivered at the symposium Royal Music Asociation titled Intercultural Transfer in Music in Singapore some time ago stated that the people of Taiwan considers girls capable of playing classical music is a valuable asset.

It becomes an obligation and a requirement to provide the best classical music education despite having borrowings. It is said to be an asset for girls with a good skill of classical music that will groom by male profession like doctors or lawyers. This means that it will be able to raise the degree or economic status of their family life.

In the historical drama film by Zhang Yimou, named The Flowers of War told about a group of female students and prostitutes runaway hiding in a church to save themselves from persecution by the Japanese army. The film is adapted from historical novel, entitled Flowers of Nanjing, a historical record of the massacre in Nanking 1937. It Illustrated that Japanese soldiers kill and rape indiscriminately at that time, but when they know that students who were hiding in the church can sing beautifully in the western manners (the church), then they revert intention and choose to keep the women to be presented to their superiors. The Church as a symbol of colonial presence (West) brought culture in this regard western music education in the eastern region. Distribution of classical music in China came through the church and European Imperialism. At the time of the Japanese population in Nanjing in 1937, classical music was considered more valuable by the east leading to students who are capable of playing music more valuable that it deserves to be given to the leadership of the Japanese army. From some of the stories, there seemed links between history, politics, economics in their influence on the position of music in a space and how education is then constructed the accompanying music.

 

Final Statement

Music education in Indonesia who comes and grows can’t be separated from the colonial narrative embodied. The entertainment industry which has come in the final decades significantly affects the development of music education in Indonesia. At first the government constructed music education to the needs of the state, but the presence when the Mozart Effect rose, music education was introduced early on, not least in schools even though the percentage was very low. Music education industry who took over the role of music education in Indonesia, the Mozart myth has embodied and become archetype and consumption affect patterns of the music. The Brand that music can improve children’s intelligence become big dream image of the parents.

Mozart as an establish symbol of classical music, convince Indonesian people, especially the middle up economic ability to show self-image in public space.  Music Education costs are quite expensive to trap people in the capital lucrative deals. Trend and prestige still become a terror in selecting the best for the child, without trying to weigh and scrutinize.

Adventures with EDM

Electronic Dance Music (EDM) is a music genre which is closely related to Indonesian’s negative judgment. That is because this music genre is associated to the night life which closes to a lot of dilapidated activities such as alcohol and drug abuse. The beat of rhythm presented could provoke almost entire audiences to dance, to forget their wearied days for a while. Though, It maybe commonly believe that this music could help the audiences to forget about their problems of life, yet, the interest of studying this musical genre remains unpopular among scholars.

The emergence of EDM in Indonesia, however, can be seen as a picture of complex relation on the societies who start to look for their new identity in the middle of chaos between ideology, politic, and power. Its participation in the world of popular music industry, then, is seen by the postmodernists as a tendency to explicitly mix many music genres consciously. This mixture ranges from a direct re-mix of the recorded song while adding it by the other instrumentations, sounds, and musical tastes, in order to create a new subcultural identity. In this case, subculture identity is symbolically expressed in the style of creative process which is not merely standing as an opposition to hegemony or the way out from social tension.

EDM Festival enlivening Indonesian music market is a legitimation of EDM’s grandiose party, as like a magnificent carnival, in which all of the sounds stand on one and only rhythm. There is no higher race among others; there is no man and woman, each individual gather all together. Laugh and social hierarchy melts away and limitlessly assimilate on the beat of rhythm.

 

 

‘Intro’

The shine of EDM as a new popular music genre is unavoidable. Night club, recently, is not a solely place where EDM lives, yet it has began to spread along to the other public spaces, such as mall playing this music genre as a soundscape. Television and radio also present EDM as selected song lists loved by audiences. EDM existence has passed trough cultural borders within many cultural spaces.

2016 billboard chart shows the domination of EDM songs which has taken almost 90 per cent of that chart. The big question is how EDM is able to break trough the limitation of audiences’ musical taste. While, it is a clear paradox when, lately, EDM presents its new stars such as Calvin Harris, Martin Garix, Marshmello, etc., considering that EDM existence as a subculture brought along by the working class supposes to deny the scene of rock star.

In Indonesia, EDM existence is still debatable. Particularly viewed as moral degrading over negative stigma, it keeps spreading persistently. That makes the spread is unseen yet could be felt. Public space such as mall presenting EDM as soundscape to create a modern image likes Orchard streets Singapore, Bukit Bintang Malaysia, Kaverstraat Amsterdam, and so on. Malls in Indonesia plays Calvin Harris ft. Rihana or Martin Garix’s song played simultaneously so those becomes familiar on the visitors’ ears.

EDM offered by the DJs with its popular stars becomes references for DJ’s local body in Indonesia. Undeniable cultural contact makes this music genre to be new references for local bodies that is close to embodying culture. Marzuki Mohammad (Kill the DJ) is one of them, a musician from Yogyakarta enlivens Indonesia’s EDM scene by performing children songs that are sung on rap within EDM beat. DJ’s scene offering locality lubricates EDM to gain new journeys trough every limit. The resonance over culture relating to the society on the particular space becomes questions that would be revealed.

 

‘Verse I’

The movie of Ada Apa Dengan Cinta 2 (shortened AADC 2), just released some time ago, presents Yogyakarta as one of its settings. As a locus enriched by plenty cultural texts, some local texts are chosen to strengthen the nuances of the city. Ora Minggir Tabrak song is one of them. This playful children song is represented as hip-hop song of EDM (Elctric Dance Music) mode by Kill the DJ and Libertaria as a soundtrack of AADC 2 movie.

Kill the DJ and LIbertaria appear in a scene portraying a glamorous atmosphere cannot be separated from the action of the DJ (Disk Jockey), a title given to a skillful person in choosing and playing musical records to create a sort of musical journey for the audience. A DJ acts as a controller and selector of music to be played in accordance with the atmosphere as well as the type of music to be played. In the process of selecting the songs, the DJ will combine particular technical skills with knowledge in the field of music in order to create a spectacular live show loved by the audience. The glamorous night life is certainly a “reality” sign of an image of a modern city.

Boshe (a club in Yogyakarta) on 3 May 2016 presented a program entitled “Locally Session” displaying “Ora Minggir Tabrak” sung by DJ Tehara as one of the leading songs to send a signal that the entertaining evening would soon come to an end marked by increasingly louder beats. A simple tone of the song got a spectacular response from the audience. The “Ora Minggir Tabrak” song is a Javanese song sung by children while they are playing and now get a particular place and sung for a different need. Through AADC 2 movie, the slowly disappearing children song, recently gets its comeback and become the hit that needed to be responded quickly by businessmen running entertainment places to meet the market demand. “Ora Minggir Tabrak” has regained popularity in such a short time. Now, art has become more integrated in the economy and been used to encourage people to consume through a big role played by commercials, in addition to the fact that art has become a separate commercial goods (Dominic Strinati, 2007).

The morality panic remains lingering around whenever the glamorous night life being discussed. The morality panic is understood as a media movement resulted from the perception that an individual, a group, or a culture with divert outlook could create a threat to the public (Stanley Cohen, 1972). However, postmodernism has broken some partitions to enable people looking deeper into the glamorous night life. The children song “Ora Minggir Tabrak” becomes a subject to be considered in how to get through these borders; how to arrange this playful children song in order to satisfy the taste of the market in form of EDM which later used as a soundtrack for a movie?

The children song “Ora Minggir Tabrak” packaged interestingly into the format of EDM (Electronic Dance Music) music genre is an interesting innovation in the hustle bustle of the Indonesian music market. The innovation is related with collage, pastiche (art work), and quotations, a combination of different genres—musically and historically—coupled with random and selective combining.

EDM as a music genre which has undergone some decreasing moments before finally has regained its popularity. The history recorded that the EDM is started in 1970, and according to Rawley Bornstein, an MTV programmer, “EDM is the new rock and roll”. This idea has become a reality since the EDM is not segmented any more, and almost every minute the radio play the EDM songs, even also a national TV station (Net TV) once ran a program to search new DJ talents program, called The Re-Mix, and a good number of festivals organized for this music genre. Nowadays, the DJs perform as if they were rock stars.

In the beginning, the EDM is an electronic music produced to be played at night clubs, or places used for people to dance. The Electronic Dance Music is usually categorized on beat per minute (BPM). The slowest EDM tempo is between 60 and 90 BPM, while the genre such as speed core may surpass the level of 240 BPM. The EDM movement appeared when the disco music started to leave the process of composing by way of traditional orchestration, and began using electronic musical instruments, such as synthesizer and drum machine in the 1970s. In those era, many producers and DJs conducted experimentations using blend mixing technique (Bennet, 2001), by combining several discs so as to produce new sounds with different tonal texture. Later on, this technique further developed following technological development.

The EDM developed in line with the development of space and time. Ibiza, a town in Balearic island of Spain, had explored local texts and developed them into Balearic beat, now a very popular beat in EDM genre. Balearic is a place surrounded by beautiful beaches and has become a very popular tourist destination in Europe, making Ibiza crowded by tourists, a town now dotted by a lot of resorts and beach clubs. A beach club in Ibiza, to quote a brochure, offers a ‘rave party’ clubbing, starting from dusk until dawn, giving birth to the local-styled EDM following the demand of the market. And the Balearic beat became a subgenre known widely and attracted the attention of beach clubs in other areas. In addition to that, the Balearic beat recording industry got a tremendous response from the market. Almost all beach clubs all over the world now make Balearic beat as soundtrack at times when the club doesn’t organized a musical event. Even a popular beach club in Bali also uses Balearic beat as a room soundscape when there is no DJ presented.

By the end of the 1980s and the beginning of 1990s, in Detroit, emerged another subgenre of EDM. The noise of the city became a reference in the innovation process. The ‘Industrial Noise’ is a sign of urban life similar to street soundscape, factory machine, shopping mall, and the noise of the city became the basic idea for the development of EDM music, and this subgenre later known as techno music. It developed rapidly in the dense cities with full of noises. It is assumed that Duesseldorf, an industrial city in Germany, is the home for the development of techno music. Ralf Hutter and Florian Schneider, the students of classical music, who were frustrated by the classical music training in the conservatory, started to conduct experiments by playing music using computers which enabled them to compose music with high level of complexity combined with soundscape available in Duesseldorf, Germany (Gill, 1977). Hutter and Schneider then established a techno music group called Kraftwerk known until nowadays and recorded in the EDM history.

In Indonesia, the EDM enjoyed reasonable development. It could be seen through the spreading of EDM festivals all over the country. In 2008, Blowfish Warehouse Project tried to attract Indonesian’s market, and it changed its name to Djakarta Warehouse Project (DWP). Organized by Ismaya Live, the DWP seemed to become a “big holiday” for music lovers. Since 2008 until recently, the DWP programs continue to attract the audience; it even has become the biggest EDM festival in the world starred by world known DJs and EDM musicians and attended by thousands of spectators.

In addition to the DWP, the EDM festival which attracted the local as well as foreign audience was Dreamfield taking place at Garuda Wisnu Kencana (GWK) Bali. Since first organized in 2014, it was attended—according to a record—by more than ten thousand spectators. Besides the Dreamfield, another EDM festival organized in Bali since early 1999 was Ultra Music Festival.

The EDM development in Indonesia is marked by the organization of international festivals attended by thousands of spectators and also the broadcasting of DJ talents hunter by TV stations. The Re-Mix, a competition format program broadcast by Net TV, was also an obvious presence of the EDM in Indonesia. This program is an adaptation of a similar show which has gained a big success in television programs in Vietnam in early 2015. With the capital as a background, the television program seemed to be interested more in taking and recycling the trend rather than spreading the innovations deemed financially risky. The success of the EDM competition in Vietnam led Tripar Multivision as the producer of The ReMix being confident to organize it in Indonesia. Of course, the confidence was also based on the “reality” of the lifestyle trend in the society. Television programs are signs that could be called the social texts (Danesi, 2008). Those texts represent various values in the society.

 

‘Chorus’

The digital technology has opened the way for the emergence of a new era in sound recording. The analogue tape machine has been replaced by computer. The computer has the ability to store and produce sound recording far more accurate that the old analogue recording machine and can produce elements different from ‘white noise’, even though frequently considered as imperfection, but nonetheless it gives a nuance of color to the recording itself. The digital technology has also facilitated a number of other things during the recording process, including making samples of various kinds of short music utilizing keyboard or synthesizer, drum pad, and also including the voice using microphone which later kept in the MIDI form. Various instruments were combined altogether so as to prepare a composition and kept in the computer memory. The samples might be manipulated as a source of sound at an unimaginable scale. The sampling technique provides an effective way in taking sound from the origin and repeats them into pieces in order to produce a new music.

The EDM’s presence in the world popular music industry—seen from the viewpoint of postmodernism—is a trend leading to explicit and blunt combination of various kinds of musical trends and genre in direct and conscious way (Hebdige, 1987). This combination includes the repetition of combining songs recorded from the same era or otherwise on the same recording, until it ‘arrives’ to be a music, e.g. sound and different instruments targeting to create a new subcultural identity.

Creativity in EDM has resulted in a changing role of musician, particularly the DJs. A DJ can do re-mixing of the available voices of artists and makes new interpretation by processing and rearranging them to become a new trend. This situation shows the blurring role of musician in the production process of EDM. A DJ right now can claim her/himself as composer, arranger, producer, and musician/player altogether.

This is an interesting subject to discuss, especially viewed from postmodernism approach—that it is not only music which has been so mixed beyond limit, but also the role of the musicians, in this case also the blurring role of DJ. It is definitely different from rock band or conventional music group. The shifting role brings consequence to a DJ. DJ Melechi (1993) states that the young generation fed up with the convention of rock performance leads to the emergence of scene without a star, a performance, and identification (Bennet, 2001). As a status, a DJ has the possibility to throw away the convention on prestige and the praise frequently received by a rock star.

Thus, the subculture identity is formed in line with the postmodernism surround it. Subculture is understood as a cultural symptom generally formed based on age and class. Symbolically, it is expressed in the form of the creation of style and not only a resistance against the hegemony or a way out of social strains (Chris Baker, 2008).

The DWP and the Dreamfield—which play their role in the music market in Indonesia—provide a legitimate EDM festivity. DWP, Dreamfield, Ultra and a lot more EDM events resemble a carnival in which all voices are in one rhythm. There is no race higher that the other, no men and women, all persons united in togetherness. Laughter and social hierarchy merge and mix without limits in the rhythmal beat.

 

‘Verse 2’

Back to the ‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’ in EDM genre, presented by Kill the DJ initiated by Marzuki Mohammad (the founder of Jogja Hip-Hop Foundation) who admitted that he was inspired by his experiences in his childhood. The song, according to Marzuki Mohammad in an interview, “It fits for AADC 2 because life is just like that. If you don’t give way you will be hit.” The same also today, we cannot remain being ignorant while time and life are moving on (Marzuki, 30 April 2016).

Kill the DJ started his career in music in 2001, and established Jogja Hip-Hop Foundation (JHF) in 2003. Marzuki admitted that the development of rave party in Yogyakarta had been the main reason why he chose the EDM way. The name Kill the DJ has been selected because of his refusal against an idol (DJ) and that it was about time to inspire his own life with what he has gone through, so that JHF is there to provide a space without a wall providing shelter for the hip hop lovers in Yogyakarta (Marzuki, 23 July 2014). Yogyakarta with the Javanese culture knows pantun (traditional poetry) called parikan, and later it has been developed by JHF and used as song lyrics.

The AADC 2, a movie catering the young generation, directed by Riri Riza, related on the friendship of four girls with their respective love stories. One of them was Cinta. The story began when the four girls went on vacation to Yogyakarta. The city has quite a number of attractive tourist destinations to visit. Unluckily, the first place they visited was a night club, not the keraton (palace) and other historic places. Rave party was the first scene of tourist destination visited by the four girls.

As an attractive entertainment, rave party is rarely discussed, even though in reality, street banners offer entertainment and drinks appeared on the corners across the city. There is one thing that makes it easier to differentiate between Yogyakarta and Jakarta. In Jakarta, the metropolitan city, particularly along the main streets from the airport to the city center of Sudirman-Thamrin area, in several places one likely spot ballyhoos or street banners announcing religious gathering, such as religious classes delivered by certain Habibs (Muslim clerics) and other religious events. On the contrary, in Yogyakarta, a city considered of culture and education, it is difficult to find similar street banners. There are a lot of banners and ballyhoos on night entertainment offering music, (sexy) dance and alcoholic drinks which—in many cases—the prices are even mentioned straight away. In fact, this is not a phenomenon, because since the beginning of the new millennia, similar banners have appeared in many entertainment places in Yogyakarta.

‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’ sung by Kill the DJ in a rave party scene, has a lot of meanings if it is analyzed as a text. The parikan usually used in the children songs has changed its meanings and functions when applied in different spaces. If we look deeper into the ‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’, the lyric has a philosophically penetrating meaning in the context of the recent social condition.

Following is the lyric of ‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’:

Minggir Ra Minggir Tabrak (give way otherwise will be hit)

Mijil-tuwuh, urip-urip, muksa-pati (born-develop, live and to live, disappear-die)

Esuk-awan, surup-sirep, rina-wengi (morning-noon, twilight-disappearing, noon-evening)

Saiki, neng kene, ngene, dilakoni (now, here, like this, undergo)

Semeleh, kudu gelem, lan nggelemi (sincere, should be willing, and willing)

Wiji wutuh, wutah pecah, pecah tuwuh, wiji maneh (seeds are intact, fell and broken, broken and grow, again become seed)

Laku, lakon, dilakoni kanthi semeleh (behave, behavior, play, do it sincerely)

Obah mamah, mingset nggeget, nyikut nggrawut, ngglethak penak (move and eat, disparaging and biting, elbowing scratching, lie down comfortably)

Nggir ra minggir tabrak wong urip kudhu tumindak (give way otherwise will be hit, life should be gone through)

That lyrics sounds connected to a larger social condition in Yogyakarta, the presence of rave party in a city with cultural identity still considered honorable, clearly it provides two things which are contradictory, but life is still going on, and the economic struggle ought to be taken into account. The market demands the presence of a new room that offers freedom.

 

‘Chorus’

‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’ as a text analyzed with a critical approach. The EDM genre song in a move soundtrack narrating on a touristic trip in Yogyakarta in rave party scene indicates a “reality” on the presence of night entertainment place as a tourist destination in Yogyakarta that should be thoroughly considered.

The circulated moral panic has been attacked by the market demand. In his article, “Dunia Lain di Yogyakarta: Dari Jatilan hingga Musik Elektronik” (Another World in Yogyakarta: From Jatilan to Electronic Music), Max Ritcher said that electronic music has created a temporary autonomous zone, which has liberated the participants from the shackles of the state and the commercial power. Performances in commercial zones in Yogyakarta, to a certain level, allow participants to challenge and go beyond the role of gender limited by the state conservatism and the global commercialization of commodity (Ariel Heryanto, 2012). Right now, the image of women has been liberated from the shackles of moral set-up. The four girls in AADC 2 have stressed that the dance floors belong to whoever wants to dance. The moral shackles seem to have been broken by space-time. ‘Ora Minggir Tabrak’ textually referred to that matter.

 

‘Ending’

The EDM has explored the world of the young generation in various forms in line with space and time. Starting from a disco club and then spread like epidemic without borders throughout the world. As a culture of the young generation, EDM is very fluid, many formations are entwined which is beyond any efforts to map out its presence.

EDM as a culture of the young generation has broken the tone in the legitimate festivity of a carnival in which all sounds are represented in one and only rhythm. There is no race higher than another, there are no men and women, all persons are united in togetherness. Laughter and social hierarchies are melt in the beating of the rhythm. The Electronic Dance Music offers resistance and freedom.

 

 

 

Publications

Barker, C. 2004. Cultural Studies, Teori dan Praktik (tans.). Yogyakarta: Kreasi Wacana.

Bennet, A. 2001. Cultures of Popular Music. Open University Press.

Cohen, S. 1987. Folks Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers, 3rd edn. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Danesi, M. 2008. Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Gill, A. 1997. “We Can be Heroes”. Mojo, 41, April: 54-80.

Hebdige, D. 1987. Cut n Mix: Culture, Identity and Carribean Music. London: Routledge.

Melechi, A. 1993. The Ecstacy of Disappearance, in Redhead 1993.

Readhead, S. (ed). 1993. Rave Off: Politics and Deviance in Contemporary Youth Culture.Aldershot: Avebury.

Strinati, D. 2007. Popular Culture. trans. Yogyakarta Jejak.

Bamboo: The Melody Surrounding Jogja

Abstract

This article describes the phenomenon of the presence of bamboo music around Jogja. Driving around Jogjakarta is not as pleasant as it was in the good old days. Traffic jam is inevitable in Jogja streets.The pleasant bamboo sound playing familiar songs gives a glimpse of calmness amongst the depressing traffic. To prolong its existence, we are expected to donate a little amount of money. The sound of bamboo is now an additional soundscape that sneaks into the noisy urban city soundscape of Jogja. Though originally came from another town, the bamboo sound is considered as a sound of the city after it mingles with the urban noise. It sounds beautiful, contrasting itself from the noisy urban sound. Using ethnography as its method, this research aims to test the process of production, dissemination, replication, and interpretation of angklung music that invades the city in a short time. It is important to investigated on how the process involves and relates the regional identities, musicians, and the listeners in the cultural reproduction in order to get an in depth description about the bamboo music phenomenon around Jogjakarta.

Keywords: Bamboo Music, Angklung, Urban, Phenomenon, Identities.

 

 

Phenomenon of the Presence of BambooMusic in Jogja

Shin Nakagawa (Japanese ethnomusicologist) did a research in Yogyakarta. As the research result, Shin elaborated what he called as soundscape. Shin Nakagawa found that different places produce different sounds. There is no such thing as identical sound; there are always different sounds in different places. Then Shin Nakagawa found that Jogja is actually a very noisy city, as there are many annoying sound at high decibel. Those sounds are the result of modernity as Jogja has shifted into urban city. The sound came from many modern products, for example the crowded streets full of motor vehicles, besides many other things. Shin Nakagawa was surprised that the Jogja people still can live peacefully surrounded by such a noisy soundscape (Nakagawa, 2000: 126).

Driving around Yogyakarta is not as pleasant as it was in the good old days. Traffic jam is inevitable in Jogja streets. Perhaps it is a sign of modernity that interrupts the city’s friendly nature. However, like an oasis in a dessert, now the crowded streets became more bearable with the presence of bamboo music around the street corners. The pleasant bamboo sound playing familiar songs gives a glimpse of calmness amongst the depressing traffic. To prolong its existence, we are expected to donate a little amount of money. The sound of bamboo is now an additional soundscape that sneaks into the noisy urban city soundscape of Jogja. Though originally came from another town, the bamboo sound is considered as a sound of the city after it mingles with the urban noise. It sounds beautiful, contrasting itself from the noisy urban sound.

The bamboo music started invading Jogja streets since 5 years ago. It took only a short time before it starts spreading massively throughout the city. Several groups of youngsters occupy spaces at the sidewalk to express themselves. Every day they put a set of angklung on the streets to play. They play to entertain the people who stop by the traffic light. Several seconds of red light is their moment to earn little money.

In addition to the city streets, the heart of the city, Malioboro, is also invaded by the bamboo music. The street that is crowded with various means of transportation becomes more cheerful with the presence of angklung music along the way. There are three angklung groups that play every night. Angklung becomes an entertainment for tourists, local citizens who pass by, as well as the food stall sellers and becak drivers who wait for customers. Often the audience stock at the right side of the streets that is actually the part of the street for becak and horse carts. Often some audience dance to the music which turns the attraction into a more interesting performance.

The Kraton Palace stands not far from Malioboro. Kraton as the cultural hegemony seems to stay silent. The bronze gamelan that symbolizes the Palace’s powerful image is rarely played. Bamboo, a cosmopolite plant, shows its agility. Bamboo music surrounds the city that is known to be enveloped by its adiluhung high culture.

The street ensemble that surrounds Jogja lately popularizes angklung music. If we browse the music using search engine, we will get the information that the traditional instrument is originally from West Java. There will be also the name Mang Udjo mentioned. Angklung is known as a traditional instrument made of bamboo. The instrument is played by shaking it. Playing this Sundanese traditional instrument requires many players because usually one player plays one or more melodies. However, the explanation in an internet page is different with the fact happens in Jogja. Street musicians call the ensemble they play as angklung music. Seen from the organology point of view, the sound they produce is indeed similar with angklung from West Java. However, seen from the visual point of view, this kind of angklung is played differently. The angklung is set into a frame that is bound with rubber. Pragmatically, this method eases the player to play the music on the streets.

The angklung that is played on the streets are a set of angklungs that are arranged side by side and are bound with rubber. That way, it no longer requires many players to produce the music. A musician can play the melody by shaking the angklungs that have been set according to the sequence of the melody. Besides angklung there is also calung that comes from Banyumas. Calung is bamboo blades that are arranged into a set that produces melody. Usually it is played using two to five sticks at the same time so that it produces harmonious accord. Other simple instruments used in the ensemble are drums that are covered with rubber tire. Simplicity is seen in the bamboo music ensemble that colors Jogja these passing years.

Researching the phenomena of angklung music amongst Jogja’s established culture is interesting, considering the fact that the angklung music groups in the city multiply themselves massively. In Jogja street corners now there are ten music groups and the number is still counting. This research will study the changes happen in the city’s public spaces as the response to the angklung music.

The big question is why angklung music survives in Jogja though the music originally comes from Sunda regions and develops in Banyumas regions. As the music that comes from marginalized regions that are far from the cultural centers such as the Kraton, the presence of angklung music in Jogja shows musical dichotomy of Kraton versus the people that manifests in the form of bronze music (gamelan, kraton) versus bamboo music (angklung, calung, the people). Music also speaks of the power. Kraton, the owner of power, keeps the bronze music for their own. The people who are forbidden from playing the bronze music have to make their own instrument. Bamboo is chosen as the main material because it is easier to find. Suddenly in this modern era, this bamboo music infiltrates Kraton’s region of power by being on Jogja streets around Kraton, the symbol of hegemony and traditional music.

Furthermore, the research sees the phenomena from the economy point of view, in which the ensemble players of angklung music in Jogja streets practically do this activity out of the motive of economy. They play their music for some rupiahs, to earn a living. From this phenomena, the research questions whether the angklung players in Jogja streets realize that beyond their economy motives there is a rebellion against a particular cultural repression. Also, whether the spectators who make the show more attractive realize that there is a discourse of rebellion and repression, or whether the spectators see the show only as something exotic, from the common people’s spectacle of orientalism.

Using ethnography as its method, this research aims to test the process of production, dissemination, replication, and interpretation of angklung music that invades the city in a short time. It is important toinvestigated on how the process involves and relates the regional identities, musicians, and the listeners in the cultural reproduction in order to get an in depth description about the bamboo music phenomenon around Jogjakarta.

 

The Merger of Identity

Angklung is indeed originally from West Java. However, geographically Banyumas is located in the border between Javanese and Sundanese regions that enables the spreading of angklung around the area. Still, angklung music in Banyumas is different from that in Sunda. These differences can be seen as the result of a casual cultural adaptation process. The intermingling with a kind of music that has existed previously makes angklung music from Banyumas different from Sundanese angklung music. The difference can be seen from the kinds of instruments in an angklung music ensemble. Every kampong in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, and surrounding districts has an angklung group that they call “Kenthongan”. The birth of angklung music must have something to do with the journey of art in Banyumas and the effect it has through the continuing social changes. In the middle of this social change, angklung music presents as the entertainment of Banyumas people. Angklung music exists as an alternative form of art as the platform for Banyumas society to express themselves as well as to fulfill their aesthetic needs. Furthermore this music develops into two contradictory characters: traditional-modern. This only shows that the Banyumas society nowadays is walking on the rail of modernity though they do not completely abandon their traditional roots. The traditional color in the angklung performance is an extraction from ancient cultural product that is still preserved in the form of art. Therefore there are many aspects of the show that are imitations from the existing form of arts.

Banyumas is a region that produces bamboo extensively and consequently has produced various kinds of traditional music like calung, angklung, krumpyung, gondoliyo/bongkel. These kinds of music are played through bamboo instruments that are made of bambu wulung specifically. The abundance of bamboo materials supplies in the regions enables the people to develop their creativity. The bamboos are turned into pitch blades that are tuned in accordance to the music performance. One arrangement of these instruments is called calung. In this arrangement the blades are put into a string and stroke with a stick. Meanwhile, when the bamboo blades were hung and are shaken to play, it turns into angklung, krumpyung, and bongkel.

Seen from the perspective of organology, physically the instruments in the angklung music ensemble are the metamorphosis of the previously mentioned instruments. Banyumas people’s romantic sense of the passing years can be seen through the people’s performances using calung, angklung, krumpyung, gondoliyo/bongkel –any kind of bamboo music instruments. This romantic sense of the past has blended with the modern sense and produces creative ideas through angklung music ensemble. As a metamorphosis, the creative process of angklung music involves the imitation process of the previously exist music instruments. The imitation process is not only in the form of exact ”photocopy”, but also innovation by putting in some “new” elements such as the kinds and shape (organology) of the instruments, as well as the performed songs. The imitation and innovation process slowly form the music performance into a more established and complete structure so that more people are attracted. This phenomenon then enforced the existence of angklung music groups.

According to popular myth, the music that is played through bamboo instruments are created from the Sunda people’s belief to Nyai Sri Pohaci, the goddess of paddy who gives the blessings of life. During the process of paddy farming, the society creates verses and songs for the goddess as a manifestation of respects. This also functions as the tolak bala (prevention of unfortunates) so that the rice in the field grows without any obstacles. The songs for Dewi Sri are played in a simple manner with bamboo blades instruments. The packages of bamboo blades instruments are then known as angklung and calung.

The documents written by Saung Mang Udjo, angklung spread to almost every part of West Java. The bamboo instrument is used as an element in rituals and ceremonies to celebrate the fertility of Dewi Sri. The ceremonies are done so that the goddess gives her blessing to smoothen the people’s farming activity.

The same phenomenon happens in Banyumas, a region that is the origin of some bamboo instruments. Now the instruments are often being played together in an ensemble. The bamboo music ensemble was first played by the farmers as a means of entertainment in the field. However, in its development, the function of the music shifted functions as the means of entertainment during ronda (village security system that are done overnight by the men of the village), as public sahur alarms, and finally become the music on the streets (ngamen).

As the time goes by, the bamboo music ensemble continuously get through the process of changing as the people’s attitude and trend also change. The change or time period influences the change of shape and creation process of the music. The change in the creative process of the music can be seen through the shift of Banyumasan gendhing to the mainstream music from the music market and industry. The phenomenon requires the musical and performance change. Since the early 1990, bamboo music ensemble is no longer dominated by Banyumasan gendhing, instead more on pop songs (dangdut).

A bamboo music researcher from Leiden University, Wim Van Zanten, stated that the existence of bamboo music with the diatonic scale cannot be separated from the role of the government. Angklung was an instrument from bamboo pipes with pentatonic scale, a scale that consists of five tunes like gamelan and other traditional music instruments. Since 1938, people started play angklung in diatonic scale just like a piano or other Western music instruments. Since November 2010, angklung was admitted by the UNESCO as a cultural heritage. The government started to actively promote angklung. One of the promotional activities is sending an angklung group who used diatonic scale abroad. Finally, angklung with diatonic scale dominated Indonesia. Franki Raden, an ethnomusicologist, stated that the government’s decision to cooperate only with one angklung group can reduce the understanding of angklungs essential point. In many international events, angklung performances usually play songs of the Western repertoire, so that it seems as if angklung exists only as a means of entertainment. In fact, until now Badui society still play pentatonic angklung when they held the paddy farming ritual ceremony (Kompas, December 9th, 2013).

To understand the symptoms of cultural reproduction that happens in this bamboo music ensemble, Appadurai’s opinion about human mobility that becomes an important factor for the shaping and changing of the culture should be considered. The boundaries of cultural regions are no longer important because a certain group is not always bounded to their own region. It has become part of other cultural regions that tend to change when an individual move places. This mobility then enforces the identity reconstruction process of a group of people. There are two processes that possibly could happen. First, a cultural adaptation between the migrants with the local culture in which they come to settle that relates to the value adaptation and daily life practice. Local culture, though not extremely strong, can be a new force in showing the values to the new-comers. Second, an individual’s identity can be shaped in accordance to the values of his or her place of origin (Appadurai, 1994). Even, someone can contribute to produce his or her culture of origin in the new place. Culture functions as the imagined values that present in everyone’s minds, and become the factors that support and preserve the culture though the individual is outside his or her domain of culture (Anderson, 1991).

The shift of profession from agriculture to non agriculture can be seen as the main reason of people’s mobility nowadays. Migration to the city cannot be avoided as the people choose to left behind their agricultural jobs and shift work into blue collar workers. The city is seen as the destination of a modern life. This condition also happens in Banyumas and surrounding towns. Lacking professional skill makes it hard to survive in the city. Finally, being street musician is an easy choice to earn a living.

Jogja as the city of culture becomes an interesting destination for the youngsters that come from Banyumas and nearby cities to try their fortune in playing bamboo music, the music that has grown with each of the individuals. One of the groups is New Banesa Angklung Group. This group can be considered lucky because they occupy a strategic place as their stage, which is in the heart of Jogja (Malioboro). A strategic place is a blessing. They occupy the a patch of sidewalk in the front of hotel Mutiara, and every night this group is surrounded by excited viewers. New Banesa Group starts its career in Jogja since August 7th, 2009. Before Jogja, they had tried other cities in Indonesia such as Surabaya, Jakarta, Semarang, Boyolali, Temanggung, Kulonprogo, and many others. However, none of these cities give them good income as Malioboro. Among the street lights and under the lights of the shops they play dangdut and campur sari songs that are familiar to the public. At least 20-30 songs every night are played in 2,5 hours (interview with Ryan, December 5th, 2013). Gambang (calung), angklung strings, maracas, small bedug, bass bedug, and a small cymbal are played by them every night at Malioboro. With different uniform every day, they play the angklung beautifully. A wooden box is placed in front of the instruments, ready to receive rupiahs. Money bills are thrown inside the box by listeners every night, ranging from a thousand to fifty thousand rupiahs. The musicians play their instruments and sing the songs one by one soulfully. Some cars and motorbike drivers who pass usually stop by for a moment to enjoy the music. Pedestrians cannot miss their attraction and stop by to enjoy the performance despite the crowded audience. In every performance, they usually watched as if in a concert. Often, a person from the audience cannot contain his or herself and starts dancing to the bamboo music.

New Banesa Angklung Group consists of nine members. Each of them has his own task. Seven persons act as the musicians, and two of the members act as the street supervisor. This is very important because they use the streets as their stage. From the seven musicians, two of them are Jogjanese who grew up in the streets of Malioboro. Aside from being street musicians, they also often take singing jobs at some events by the government, private institutions, big companies, or commoners. The instruments that they play are not only angklung. They have added other music instruments so that the bamboo music ensemble becomes more attractive. In an interview, they stated that tourists who come to Jogja must be they who understand and enjoy arts. Therefore, angklung will always be enjoyed and watched by the tourists in Malioboro.

The abundance of street vendors at the sidewalks has become Malioboro’s main attraction. The tourism industry has turned Malioboro into a business center with high money rotation. This place is the meeting point of many people with various affairs. Malioboro and its sidewalks have become the “land of hope”, a “new” place in which every person has the rights to earn a living. Among these people, there are angklung music groups who use Malioboro sidewalks as their stage. There are three groups that occupy this public space and turn it into their stage. Some experts call this phenomenon as frontierisme.

Frontierisme is a belief in which everyone may occupy any “empty space”. In Malioboro, the “empty space” is the public space that actually belongs to the public. The public space, sidewalks and street pavements, does not belong to a particular group of people who can freely occupy it. In this belief, sidewalks and pavements are seen as frontiers, just like a jungle that can be invaded and occupied. Just like an empty space, many people come to Malioboro and then occupy it. The street vendors and angklung music groups have won the space over the pedestrians in Malioboro. The desire to occupy the empty space has built the frontierisme ideology. Frontierisme then is seen as a construction about crossing the boundaries, and also about progressive and expansive occupation of a space. In the next development, when the idea about the frontier is actualized, the progressive expansion creates competitive attitude and strategy so that the group can win the “battle” in the frontier area. In this area, law and legal regulations are ignored, so that the following interactions show chaos and mess, as well as the compromise to accept any condition (Melbin, 1978:7).

Malioboro sidewalks and pavements that used to be public space that is “no-one’s space” have shifted into “private/someone’s space”. An individual claims a certain public space as his or her own private space. He or she positioned his or herself as the “master” of the lot of land. When many people see Malioboro sidewalks and streets as a space that can give space to individuals, more and more people come to occupy the sidewalks and streets of Malioboro. The number of people invading the space of Malioboro represents the number of affairs that they bring along. Consequently, competition to get the patch of sidewalks and streets happens. In the competition, people use the sidewalks and pavements as the space to actualize each individual’s personal affairs.

Whatever happens in Malioboro now, the noisy manner and the competition of affairs, are related with business. Business, tied with the economy motive, makes people try to get maximal profit by minimal capital. The business running in Malioboro is the tourism industry. Malioboro is turned into Jogja’s main tourism destination. It also becomes the center of money rotation so that everyone will be attracted to come there. People then penetrate Malioboro using their own unique ways, such as the street vendors that reduces the walking space in Malioboro’s narrow sidewalks, and the street musicians around the street corners who turn the space into their stage.

The presence of street vendors and street musicians is considered disturbing. However, their presence is needed for the existence of Malioboro. Street vendors contribute big funding to the City Government from their rents, tax, and retribution. Moreover, street vendors are the main attraction to the tourists in Malioboro because of their merchandise that are locally made. The tourist in Malioboro who walks in the pavements also needs the existence of the street vendors. People will not flood to Malioboro if there are no street vendors there. The existence of the street vendors has blended with the image of Malioboro, and this image has been build inside the mind of Malioboro visitors. The chaotic condition of Malioboro is also due to the role of the visitors or the pedestrians. The number of people who want to enjoy Malioboro is always increasing. They enjoy the streets while seeing through the merchandise. Of course the tourists and the buyers will walk slowly. Seeing this phenomenon, it can be said that Malioboro deliberately provides its sidewalks not only for pedestrians, but also for the street vendors to sell their merchandise. Malioboro is then known as the place with the street vendors. It is Malioboro’s identity. The identity differentiates Malioboro’s sidewalks with the others. When an individual or a group of people place themselves in Malioboro’s sidewalks, they will build the image (prepare themselves) to the condition of Malioboro’s sidewalk. They will adapt with the fact happening on the sidewalk. The attitude of the individuals then builds the identity of Malioboro. Proxemically, the identity that sticks to Malioboro is built by the way people look at Malioboro and the way they act in Malioboro. People are aware that when they walk on the sidewalks of Malioboro, they will encounter street vendors with their unique merchandise. At night, they will encounter the lesehan food stalls with the sounds of street musicians.

Now Malioboro becomes more attractive with the existence of angklung music groups that becomes new entertainment for dangdut music fans. The closure of Purawisata as Jogja’s dangdut icon at the end of 2012 made angklung music becomes an interesting choice for Purawisata’s visitors. Purawisata dangdut lovers admit that they have lost a space of entertainment with the closure of Purawisata, but the presence of this angklung music can fulfill their desire to dance. This is a nuance that becomes a magnet to attract people to come to Malioboro. A condition that makes Malioboro always crowded with visitors. In the other side, Malioboro is also known as a place that is crowded and not comfortable. The competition for room, land lot mafia, traffic jam and chaos are always there in Malioboro. In Malioboro, people are often feeling insecure to cross the street, being swindled by street vendors, and the enjoyment to walk in the sidewalks are ruined because of the crowdedness. The image of Malioboro that is built in the minds of the individuals is due to the result of the individuals’ adaptation to Malioboro. Many faces of Malioboro started to be seen, the romantic ones to the chaotic ones. The street vendors sell a lot of unique merchandise that are bought as souvenirs by the visitors. However, the crowded street vendors and visitors make Malioboro looks messed up and chaotic. It makes some people reluctant of going there. This means that Malioboro’s identity is shaped by how people look at Malioboro and how people act at Malioboro. Here, individual’s image has an important role in shaping the identity of Malioboro.

Malioboro’s condition as Jogja’s icon can describe Jogja’s condition. The presence of bamboo music in Jogja streets can be said due to frontierisme ideology that has started to grow in the urban society. The economy shift from agriculture to non agriculture creates a unique economy condition that prominences the city as the modernity symbol. The crowded city makes the people adapt with the surrounding socio-cultural environment. The sayings “Saiki jaman edan, sing ora edan ora keduman”(Now is the year of madness, those who are not mad will not get the share). The competition to occupy the public space can be seen as the manifestation of the saying. Jogja streets started to be crowded with food stalls. The area near Tugu station, for example, is crowded with angkringan food stalls in a nick of time. Street musicians also take this chance to earn some living. The competition is seen blatantly when the angkringan sellers and parking staffs try their best to get the visitors. The streets around the station have been turned into frontier area, unoccupied area that can be seized by any individual to fulfill their needs. Besides the streets around Tugu, almost every sidewalk in Jogja City has now become frontier area. Kraton no longer has the power as the single occupier of Jogja. The hegemony that they promote cannot win over the frontierisme ideology that occurs due to the economy problem. The bamboo music that was brought by Banyumas youths become an option for Jogja youths to earn some living. The growth of these music groups in some points in the town describes that Jogjakarta can adapt with the modernity effect that happen in many sectors.

It seems that the frontierism ideology to fight Kraton’s hegemony is in accordance with the concept of Public Sphere that is explained by Jurgen Habermas. The Public Sphere is a public sphere in which everyone can be together and use the public sphere for their personal needs. Although forced by the frontierism ideology that is based on economy as the main trait of urban society, actually there is something political beyond this phenomenon: the act to fight against hegemony. Like what has been said by Habermas, often there is political motive beyond each act in public sphere, although unrecognized by the individuals. (Habermas, 1989).

The spreading of angklung music ensemble in the public sphere (Malioboro) is one of the examples. The marginalized music comes from a place that is far away from the center of adiluhung culture (Kraton). Now the music sneaks into the center of the adiluhung culture. However, instead of playing the music in Kraton (must be hard to do), angklung and calung groups take advantage of the public sphere in Jogja streets. Seen from the economy point of view, they become stronger because they earn big money every night. Seen from the political point of view, they are also strong because they use the public sphere, a public room that belongs to the public. And maybe the angklung and calung ensemble challenge the Kraton hegemony, as well as challenging the social strata that manifests in the expensive music performances in theater buildings or fancy cafés. They exist in the public sphere, on the streets.

The street vendors and sellers in the public spheres also have the same political motive: to fight against hegemony. Frontierism is real and it exists in the way they earn their living through economy motive. However, there is a fight against hegemony in the big retail stores or malls in Jogja. The development plan to improve the tourism industry is a part of modernity. This is one of the things that make Jogja becomes more chaotic. There is a kind of exoticism that is offered by the public sphere. Something that makes Malioboro stays crowded although there are many malls and shopping centers in Jogja.

 

Making New Culture with Bamboo

Jogja is identical with the classic traditional culture that becomes the city’s identity from the past. Now the identity is going through a shift to modernity. Kraton is the Sultan’s Palace that is a cultural heritage from the past that still exists until now, although the hegemony is no longer strong. The shift of profession in Java from agricultural society to the non agricultural makes Jogja has to change. The migration to the city creates a new culture that is more dynamic. The existence of angklung music in Jogja streets indicates that Jogja becomes an open multicultural space. Many cultures that come along with the urban society adapt beautifully with the established local culture. The given public rooms can be appreciated freely by anyone with the needs. Kraton as the symbol of hegemony of the established culture is consistent in using bronze as the symbol of its power and adiluhung culture. In the other side, bamboo is known with its ability to be cosmopolite; it can adapt with any kinds of room and survive, although it has to fight against the strong and luxurious bronze.

 

 

REFERENCES

Anderson, Ben. 1991. Imagined Communities. London: Verso.

Appadurai, Arjun.1994. “Global Ethnoscape: Notes and Queries for Transnational

Anthropology” in R.G Fox (ed.), Recapturing Anthropology: Working in the Present. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

Habermas, Jurgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of The Public Sphere:

An inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kompas. 2013. Promosi Angklung Perlu Dibenahi. December 9th

Melbin, Murray. 1978. Night as Frontier. American Sociological Review 43.

Nakagawa, Shin. 2000. Musik dan Kosmos. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.